Neural Network for Exploration Map of Illinois Coal Deposit

Finding and developing the new source of minerals with precise characteristics such as location, depth, quality, thickness, shape, etc. is required by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to establish a new site for mining operation. Exploration is one of the risky and costly investments for the companies. Driving bore hole and running expensive test with a blind guess is one of the concerns for the all companies. In this paper, a new method for choosing a scientific map for exploration rather than an arbitrary map was introduced. The aim of this project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of SOM application in visual exploration of physical geography data The Self-Organizing Map (SOM), as one of the most applicable models of neural network, is selected for the simulation. SOM provides a data visualization technique which helps to understand high dimensional data by reducing the dimensions of data to a map. The algorithm is based on unsupervised learning. In the present project, Java programming codes is used to simulate the SOM algorithm. For the case study Illinois state geology coal map distribution were considered.

Read: ECE-572_Paper_080311

Fuzzy Social Networks

“In social science, the structural approach that is based on the study of interaction among social actors is called social network analysis” (Freeman, 2004). Social network analysts study the structure formed by the nodes (people or group) connected by the links (relationships or flow). Traditionally, researchers in this field study such structures constructed by the society of humans, or animals such as ants, bees, or apes.  They discover various patterns and examine their effects on those societies (Krebs, 2000). Social network analysis caters its contribution in economics, biology, chemistry, social psychology, information science, geography, and sociolinguistics. More recently due to growth of the Internet, social network analysis is spanning its roots in the study of the World Wide Web (WWW), email communications, computer networks, online marketing, and spread of viruses. (read more)

Believable Adaptive Video Game Agents

You see two pictures of the same guy—Agent Smith from the movie The Matrix, with similar smile. If you would have seen Agent Smith in his natural avatar (picture on the right) then on screen he might not be as convincing or realistic as he was. Believability is not a new concept. It has been there for ages. It can be movie characters or the fictional characters in a Novel. They need to believable in order to keep the viewers or readers interested. Same is the case with the artificial characters in games, in order to keep the players interested. On the contrary to the movies and novels, the game environment is virtual and dynamic where players can interact. This dynamicity makes it difficult to design convincing characters.

In 1950, Turing devised a game called the ‘imitation game’. There are three players in the game, (a) man, (b) women, and (c) interrogator. Interrogator is in the separate room then the subjects. Interrogator interacts with the subjects via terminal. Objective of the interrogator is to determine who’s who. To make the game interesting the man is replaced by a machine—digital computer, other things remains the same. Turing devised this game, in order to determine whether the interrogator will be able to determine correctly more often than before, when the subject was the actual man. This test has become the de fecto standard for judging the humanness or believability of a machine (computer). Turing predicted the following:

“I believe that in about fifty years’ time it will be possible to programme computers, with a storage capacity about 109 , to make them play the imitation game so well that an average interrogator will not have more than 70 per cent. Change of making the right identification after give minutes of questioning.”

Certainly, this is not the case after sixty years, since his prediction. Turing certainly overestimated the power computers. Turing test is often criticized by strong AI community. According to them, a computer is not necessarily intelligent if it pass the Turing test. Contrary, this is required in video games, not an intelligent computer player, but a computer that appears intelligent; a believable agent.

see: believable adaptive game ai

This entry was posted in General.

Video Game Genres

Video games can be categorized in to different genres. It is very common that a single game be categorized into one or more genres; also, several genres overlap each other. Video games has substantially evolved in time and so have their genres. This articles lists several prevalent genres are listed here.


Adventure games include saga, quest, story, and hero. They can be a text-based or with extensive graphics. Other elements of these games include puzzle solving and interaction with others.


These are superset of fast paced real-time games often involve combat and other forms of movement. The sub-genres of the action games are platform, fighting, and shooter games.


A platform game consist of main character running, jumping, climbing, etc. on a platform or obstacles. Platform games sometimes include elements from other game genres such as fighting and shooting. Popular platform games includes Super Mario Bors., Sonic the Hedgehog, Wonderboy, and Donkey Kong.


Fighting games involved one to one combat between two characters. One of the characters can be a computer players. Games like Sega’s Heavyweight Boxing, and Street Fighter II can be characterized as fighting games. Games usually involve fighting with martial arts, swordplay, and boxing.


One of the most popular genre, Shooter games, involves fighting with weapons such as guns and missiles. Shooter games can be dived into two sub-genres: First-person Shooter (FPS), and Third-Person Shooter (TPS or 3PS).

First-person Shooter

You play a character in first-person shooter games. Players emphasize on shooting and aiming accurately. Players are usually behind the eye of the main character giving the players a feeling of ‘being there’ in the moment of the game. These are usually fast-paced game, with high thrill and difficulty levels. There is a long list of games in this genre: Team Forstress, Helo, Killzone, Metroid, Unreal Tournament, Call of Duty, Half-life, and (my personal favorite) Counter-Strike.

Third-Person Shooter

Players shoot and combat from a camera perspective. This gives players a better view of the world, since player is seen at a distance in the screen.


Action-adventure games combine elements of action and adventure games. There is some long term goals involved in an adventure games, with obstacles on the path which involve elements of action games.

Real time Strategy (RTS)

RTS games are continuous play games which requires players to collect resources and control things. Usually, the players are god-like and control theirs units and compete with opponents for land and resources. Games in RTS genre include Age of Empires, Sid Meier’s Civilizations, and Caesar.


Players play in turns. Examples of turn based games are Chess and Checkers. Several RTS games are also turn-based.

Role-Playing Games (RPG)

In role playing games, players plays roles of various characters in a virtual world. Players explores more than one areas of the environment advancing in the game play. A classic role playing game is Dungeons and Dragons.

Massively Multi-player Online(MMO)

As the name suggest this is a genre of games which involve thousands of players simultaneously playing an online game.


These games focus on precession, and sneaky action to goals. These games can be coupled with FPS, Role Playing, and other genres of games. Contrary to these genres, stealth games requires more focused actions and accuracy in achieving goals. Hitman series are one of the most popular stealth genre games.

Survival Horror

These are action games with horror elements. Logic similar to horror movies in applies in games.


Simulating a system such as physical systems, physics, economics simulation, military, vehicular simulator, goad games, government policies, politics, sports and racing. These games are designed to make simulation as close to real world as possible.


These are the classic racing games involves variety of vehicles such as cars, plan, go-carts, etc.

Rhythm or Music Games

Players are requires to move or synchronize their action with a rhythm or music. Goal of such games in to make players move or exercise.

Serious Games

These type of games are designed for serious purpose such as training, education health or simulation of a real world occurrence.

Classic or Traditional Games

Various traditional games such as card games, board game or gambling games are included in this genre.


Various puzzle games, include crossword, Tetris, and Soduku, involves .logic and strategy in playing.

Casual Games

Games in this genre is targated at mas audiences, are are easy to learn. Games usually have short burst of time doesn’t require large commitment. These games are often associated with mobile device.


These games are designed specifically for educating children or adults, with fun involved in learnings.

Fuzzy Hedges

When talking in natural language, it is usual to emphasis or weaken the impact the sentence with words such as, very, little, etc. For example, John is very tall. The similar concept is usual for fuzzy sets, called fuzzy hedges, is applied on membership function of a fuzzy set.

Most commonly used fuzzy hedges are: